2004 Trafficking in Person Reports

Mongolia is a source and transit country for women and men trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor; it also faces a problem of children trafficked internally for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. In 2004, the government documented over 200 Mongolian children exploited as prostitutes. Mongolian women are trafficked to China, Macau, and South Korea for commercial sexual exploitation. There are also reports that Mongolian women have been trafficked to Hungary, Poland, and other East European countries, as well as France and Germany. Some Mongolian men working overseas face exploitative conditions that meet the definition of involuntary servitude — a severe form of trafficking.

The Government of Mongolia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The Mongolian Government has acknowledged that trafficking is a problem and has tried to improve its ability to address it. While the government engages NGOs and regional and international organizations on anti-trafficking measures, it lacks the resources to combat trafficking effectively on its own. The Mongolian Government does not systematically monitor its anti-trafficking efforts and some officials lack an understanding of what constitutes trafficking. Government action should concentrate on adopting a strong and comprehensive anti-trafficking law, arresting and prosecuting traffickers, and providing victim protection measures.


The Mongolian Government’s law enforcement efforts against trafficking were modest during the reporting period. The government investigated four trafficking-related cases in 2004, but there were no successful prosecutions. Authorities have not developed the capacity to compile full information on trafficking-related arrests, prosecutions, and convictions. Mongolia’s criminal code and criminal procedure code contain provisions against trafficking in women and children and prostitution, with penalties of ten to 15 years’ imprisonment for trafficking and a maximum of five years’ imprisonment for prostitution. The Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs, in coordination with the National Human Rights Commission, is currently reviewing the anti-trafficking provisions of the criminal code in an effort to strengthen the law and make it easier to prosecute traffickers.


The Mongolian Government did not provide protection and direct assistance to trafficking victims during the reporting period, largely due to resource constraints. The government did not fund foreign and domestic NGOs that provided support for victims.


While there were no anti-trafficking campaigns conducted in Mongolia over the last year, the government worked with travel industry representatives and UNICEF to establish a voluntary code of conduct to prevent the sexual exploitation of children in the travel and tourism industry. The Mongolian Government recognized that trafficking is a problem, but it did not place a priority on trafficking prevention programs. During the last year, the government began developing a national action plan to combat trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children.