2005 Trafficking in Persons Report

Mongolia is a source country for women and men trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor. Mongolian women are trafficked to China, Macau, and South Korea; a small number of Mongolian women were also trafficked to Turkey and Israel.  Up to 200 North Korean contract laborers in Mongolia are not free to leave their employment, raising strong concerns that their labor is compulsory. There are reports that Mongolian women have been trafficked to Hungary, Poland, and other East European countries, as well as France and Germany.  Some Mongolian men working overseas face exploitative conditions that meet the definition of involuntary servitude — a severe form of trafficking.  Mongolia also faces a problem of children trafficked internally for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation.  In 2005, the government documented over 150 Mongolian children exploited as prostitutes.

The Government of Mongolia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Acknowledging its trafficking problem, the Mongolian Government in November 2005 adopted a National Action Plan against trafficking and the sexual exploitation of women and children.  While the government lacked the resources to combat trafficking effectively on its own, it continued to cooperate with NGOs and regional and international organizations on anti-trafficking measures.  Government action should concentrate on adopting a strong and comprehensive anti-trafficking law, arresting and prosecuting traffickers, and providing victim assistance and protection measures.


The Government of Mongolia’s anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts were modest but improving in 2005.  During the reporting period, the government prosecuted five trafficking cases, leading to one conviction under an anti-trafficking statute adopted in 2002.  Mongolian authorities have not developed the capacity to compile full information on trafficking-related arrests, prosecutions, and convictions. Mongolia’s criminal code and criminal procedure code contain provisions against trafficking and prostitution, with penalties of up to 15 years’ imprisonment for trafficking. The Mongolian Government is currently reviewing the anti-trafficking provisions of the criminal code in an effort to strengthen the law and make it easier to prosecute traffickers.  Corruption is widespread and growing in Mongolia.  While there are reports that some individual local government officials reportedly profit from trafficking, there were no reported investigations or prosecutions of officials complicit in trafficking.


The Mongolian Government in 2005 provided limited protection and direct assistance to trafficking victims, given its modest resources.  The government provided assistance to children in prostitution through a police program to encourage their re-entry into school or training.  Because of resource constraints, the government did not fund foreign and domestic NGOs that provided support for victims.


The Mongolian Government increased its efforts to raise awareness of trafficking, conducting an anti-trafficking campaign in late 2005.  Mongolia’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs distributed information on trafficking to consular officials serving overseas.  The Mongolian Government also continued collaboration with travel industry representatives and UNICEF to implement a voluntary code of conduct to prevent the sexual exploitation of children in the travel and tourism industry.